This large, familiar family is well-represented in Indonesia with 25 species, 15 of which occur in Java. Unlike the related barbets, however, woodpeckers have breached Wallace’s Line, with two endemic species on Sulawesi and one species extending as far east as Alor, just north of Timor. Supremely adapted for life on vertical tree trunks, they are equipped with two dexterous hind toes (zygodactyl arrangement) and stiffened tail feathers that are used as stabilizing props when climbing, and a thick-walled skull built to withstand the shock of drilling into hard wood when foraging or excavating nest holes. Moreover their tongues are extremely long, and in some species, tipped with barbs and sticky from salivary secretions, features designed to access and extract unsuspecting wood-boring insect larvae from their homes or sweep up large numbers of ants. In addition to its important role as an excavating tool for feeding and nest-construction, the powerful chisel-tipped bill is used as a drum beater on wood to advertise territorial boundaries and attract mates. Baluran
Direct and characteristically undulating, alternating between short pulses of fast flapping and slowly descending glides.