Very popular as pets, parrots are well-known to most people for their intelligence, ability to mimic human voices and spectacularly colourful plumage. This large family, together with the closely-related cockatoos of Australasia, probably evolved in the great southern land mass called Gondwana before it starting breaking apart, since it is still concentrated in the southern continents (Australia, South America and Africa). Although no fewer than 81 species of parrots are found in Indonesia, the vast majority occurs to the east of Java and Bali, in Wallacea (Sulawesi, Maluku and Nusa Tenggara) or in Papua, where they are shared with the rest of New Guinea, which is geologically part of Australia.
A deep hooked bill is the main distinguishing feature of this family, and is used for opening fruits, husking seeds and sometimes excavating wood, as well as a grip when hanging upside down from branches. The feet have two toes pointing forward and two pointing back, a useful arrangement for climbing and food handling. Apart from fruit and seed, many species are nectar and pollen eaters. Most parrots are highly social, and form large flocks at time, particularly at roosts. They are also highly vocal, and are best known for their raucous screeches and loud whistles. They nest in tree holes, often using the old nests of barbets and woodpeckers. Due to their popularity as caged birds, tens of thousands of parrots are illegally trapped in eastern Indonesia and traded in large ports like Surabaya.
Typically fast and direct with deep and rapid wing beats, often while calling.