Monarchidae


A slightly larger family than the Australasian warblers (Acanthizidae) with over 90 species, the Monarchs and relatives have a much wider global distribution, stretching from Africa eastwards through Southeast Asia to islands of the Southwest Pacific. The highest numbers of species are to be found in New Guinea and Oceania, and all but a few are tropical or sub-tropical in distribution. Few are migratory. A diagnostic characteristic of monarchs is their pale blue-grey bill, which is broad, sometimes strongly flattened, hooked at the tip, and fringed by well-developed rictal bristles. The tail is moderately long in most species, but greatly elongated into streamers in the Paradise Flycatchers, and is often fanned or shivered. Few species are migratory. The majority are sexually dimorphic to some extent, spectacularly so in some species. Unlike the Old World Flycatchers, juvenile monarchs are unspotted. Vocalisations include distinctively unmusical grating calls, as well as whistled songs. Of the two monarchs in Java, one occurs in Baluran .

Flight:

Direct, with fast flapping

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